Traces of the first settlements in the area of the city of Budapest today date back to the Stone Age, but many nations alternated throughout history in longer or shorter periods. The first golden age was under the Roman Empire, when the roman town of Aquincum –today part of Budapest – was the capital of Pannonia province from 106 AD until the end of the 4th century. Under the leadership of the famous Attila, Huns advanced in the Pannonian Plain in the 5th century. Later in 896, conquering Hungarian tribes led by Árpád crossed the Carpathians and settled in the area. The coronation of the first king Stephen the 1st in 1000 marks the foundation of the Hungarian state.
The very name of Budapest reminds us today of the creation of the city in 1873 by conjoining Buda and Pest (to be precise, three separate cities at the time, namely Buda, Óbuda – located also on the west bank of the river Danube – and Pest). Today, Budapest is an administrative, cultural, scientific, economic, trade and transportation center with about 2 million inhabitants. Its inhabitants speak a unique and difficult language that is unlike any other. Hungarian is said to be related to Finnish, but as very distant subgroups of the Uralic language family, they only have a handful of words in common.
Budapest is known for its remarkable sights and cuisine. There are many famous landmarks to explore on both sides of the river. Pest is more urban, with many offices, restaurants and pubs. The Parliament, Heroe’s Square and the Basilica are located on this side of the river. Buda extends to the hills on the west bank of the Danube and Pest on the east bank of the river in the lowlands. In Buda, the 235 m high “hill” (Gellért-hegy) rises from the river bank and offers a remarkable view of the whole city. The most famous sights here are The Castle, the Mathias church and the Fisherman´s Bastion. There are 7 bridges, including the most well-known Chain Bridge, connecting the two sides of Budapest.
Budapest has offered much to arts and science throughout history. The safety match, the electric motor, the transformer, the dynamo, and the telephone exchange were all invented here, not to mention everyday objects like the ballpoint pen and the Rubik cube. In medicine, the most famous is probably Ignac Semmelweis, the savior of mothers, however, many other Nobel prize-winning scientists were born here, like Albert Szentgyörgyi who discovered vitamin C, György Békésy, Dénes Gábor, Jenö Wigner, János Harsányi and György Oláh. In arts, the inhabitants of this city also created a lasting heritage. Our famous musicians were Zoltan Kodaly and Béla Bartók, while painters Mihály Munkacsy, Károly Lotz and Victor Vasarely created lasting masterpieces that make it worth to pay a visit to Budapest’s many art museums.
But this year Budapest is not only history. It is also science, and …. what a science!! Pre-clinical and clinical musculoskeletal research is brought to Budapest by the ECTS, mingling though with the Hungarian flavour of history and tradition. Enjoy our outstanding programme and network with the musculoskeletal excellences from 10 to 14 May 2009.
|· Biomarkers and biochemical testing||· Mammalian and non-mammalian models|
|· Bone bioengineer, regeneration and implants||· Muscle, physical activity and bone|
|· Bone biomechanics and quality||· Osteoblasts and bone formation|
|· Bone development/growth and fracture repair||· Osteoclasts and bone resorption|
|· Cancer and bone||· Osteocytes and mechanobiology|
|· Chondrocytes and cartilage||· Osteoporosis|
|· Endocrine factors||· Other diseases of bone and mineral metabolism|
|· Energy metabolism, fat, diabetes, nutrition||· Paediatric bone diseases|
|· Genetics & epigenetics||· Rare bone diseases|
|· Inflammation, arthritis and other joint diseases|
See you in Budapest, where history and musculoskeletal science will meet the ECTS delegates!