The ECTS Working Group on Vitamin D has published a Position Paper entitled “Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency”. In this paper, causes, consequences and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in Europe and the Middle East are discussed. Vitamin D deficiency is common, more in Southern Europe and the Middle East than in Northern Europe. The ECTS advises that the measurement of serum 25(OH)D be standardized to enable comparison between countries. Consequences of vitamin D deficiency include mineralization defects, lower bone mineral density and fractures. Consequences outside the skeleton are muscle weakness, falls and acute respiratory infection. The ECTS recommends to improve the vitamin D status by food fortification, for example of dairy products, and the use of vitamin D supplements in risk groups, such as infants and children up to 3 years, pregnant women, older persons and non-western immigrants. The paper has been published in the European Journal of Endocrinology in February 2019 online and can be downloaded through PubMed or clicking here.